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What is a piston pump

Piston pumps: how they work, how much they cost and the best on the market


What is a piston pump

The piston pumps are one of the most important components in the field of hydraulic engineering. These devices are used to convert mechanical energy into fluid energy, playing a crucial role in a wide range of industrial applications.

In this article, we will provide a comprehensive guide on piston pumps, we will examine how they work and list the best ones currently on the market.

What is a piston pump?

A piston pump is a mechanical device used to move liquids or fluids by harnessing the reciprocating motion of pistons. These pistons move within a cylinder, creating positive pressure and generating a continuous flow of liquid. Piston pumps are commonly used in various industrial applications, thanks to their ability to handle high pressures and offer precise flow control.

Fundamental parts of the piston pump

A piston pump is made up of several fundamental parts:

  • Cylinder: This is the main body of the pump within which the pistons move.
  • Pistons: These are the moving components that operate inside the cylinder. Their action creates the movement of the fluid.
  • Connecting Rods: They connect the pistons to the crankshaft and transmit the crankshaft's circular motion to the pistons' linear motion.
  • Crankshaft: It is the rotating element of the pump that converts the engine's energy into the reciprocating motion of the pistons.
  • Pumping Head: This is the top part of the pump and contains intake and exhaust valves to regulate the flow of the fluid.
  • Intake and Exhaust Valves: The intake valves allow the fluid to enter the pump during the intake phase, while the exhaust valves allow the fluid to exit during the pumping phase.
  • Seals: These are used to seal the moving parts of the pump and prevent fluid leaks.
  • Suction Chamber: This is the part of the cylinder where the fluid is drawn into the pump.
  • Pumping Chamber: This is the part of the cylinder where the fluid is pushed out of the pump.
  • Control Valves: These can be used to regulate the flow of the fluid or to control the direction of the pistons' movement.

Principle of operation

The operation of a piston pump is based on the cycle of suction and pumping of the fluid. During the suction phase, the drive shaft moves the connecting rods, advancing the pistons towards the pumping chamber and creating a vacuum in the suction chamber. The intake valves open, allowing the fluid to enter the pump to fill this vacuum.

As the pistons move towards the pumping chamber during the pumping phase, the intake valves close to prevent the fluid from returning. Conversely, the exhaust valves open, allowing the fluid to be expelled from the pumping chamber and directed to the desired location.

This alternating movement of the pistons continues cyclically, allowing the pump to keep transferring fluid efficiently and continuously.

Applications of piston pumps

The piston pumps, thanks to their immense versatility in handling a wide range of fluids, are widely used in numerous industrial applications.

They can be employed in sectors such as the petrochemical industry, where they are used for the production, transport, and refining of oil and gas. Moreover, piston pumps are extensively used in the chemical sector for the transfer of fluids, precise dosing, and mixing of products.

In the mining industry, these pumps are used for pumping liquids and sludges during extraction. Within the automotive field, piston pumps are found in internal combustion engines for the movement of coolant and engine oil.

These are just a few examples of their applications; their usage can vary based on the specific needs of each sector.

We at Emiltec market piston pumps specifically designed for use with water, ideal for applications mainly related to washing.

Cost of piston pumps

The cost of piston pumps varies significantly based on various factors such as flow capacity, operating pressure, the quality of construction materials, the brand and model of the pump, as well as the availability of additional features and options.

Generally, piston pumps with low capacity and pressure start at a few hundred euros. The more performance-oriented or high-pressure pumps can reach several thousand euros.

It is essential to consider that a high-quality piston pump represents a long-term investment, as it guarantees reliability and longevity.

In this regard, the consultation service of Emiltec is here to clear your doubts: our team of professionals is always available to help you find the piston pump most suitable for the needs and specifications of the system.

The best piston pumps on the market and the role of Emiltec

We at Emiltec are a leading European reference for the supply of high-pressure industrial cleaning products. Our catalog offers a wide selection of piston pumps from the best brands on the market such as Interpump, Hawk, Annovi Reverberi, Udor, and many others.

Among our numerous products, we must mention the Udor VX series piston pumps. These pumps can deliver flows up to 200 l/min at 100 bar and up to 60 l/min at 350 bar and are among the best pumps on the market for urban cleaning vehicles and fire prevention systems.

For those looking for products for professional pressure washers or car wash systems, the Leuco Hawk NMT series piston pumps are ideal, as they can operate with flows up to 25 l/min and pressures up to 200 bar.

Emiltec conclusions and contacts

In essence, piston pumps are essential and versatile tools that play a crucial role in many industries and applications. Their ability to generate pressure and transfer fluids makes them indispensable in various sectors.

Contact Emiltec now for personalized advice or download the general catalog at the bottom of this page to get an idea of our wide range of offerings!